From 9/11, to intense preventing on the bottom, and now full withdrawal of US-led forces, right here’s what occurred.
Al-Qaeda, led by Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan, carries out the biggest terror assault ever performed on US soil.
4 industrial airliners are hijacked. Two are flown into the World Commerce Centre in New York, which collapses. One hits the Pentagon constructing in Washington, and one crashes right into a discipline in Pennsylvania. Practically 3,000 individuals are killed.
First air strikes
A US-led coalition bombs Taliban and al-Qaeda amenities in Afghanistan. Targets embody Kabul, Kandahar and Jalalabad.
The Taliban, who took energy after a decade-long Soviet occupation was adopted by civil battle, refuse at hand over Bin Laden. Their air defences and small fleet of fighter plane are destroyed.
Fall of Kabul
The Northern Alliance, a gaggle of anti-Taliban rebels backed by coalition forces, enters Kabul because the Taliban flee town.
By the 13 November 2001, all Taliban have both fled or been neutralised. Different cities rapidly fall.
After protracted negotiations at a “loya jirga” or grand meeting, the brand new Afghan structure is signed into legislation. The structure paves the way in which for presidential elections in October 2004.
Hamid Karzai turns into president
Hamid Karzai, the chief of the Popalzai Durrani tribe, turns into the primary president below the brand new structure. He serves two five-year phrases as president.
UK troops deployed to Helmand
British troops arrive in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold within the south of the nation.
Their preliminary mission is to assist reconstruction tasks, however they’re rapidly drawn into fight operations. Greater than 450 British troops lose their lives in Afghanistan over the course of the battle.
US President Barack Obama approves a significant enhance within the variety of troops despatched to Afghanistan. At their peak, they quantity about 140,000.
The so-called “surge” is modelled on US technique in Iraq the place US forces focussed on defending the civilian inhabitants in addition to killing rebel fighters.
Osama Bin Laden killed
The chief of al-Qaeda is killed in an assault by US Navy Seals on a compound in Abbottabad in Pakistan. Bin Laden’s physique is eliminated and buried at sea. The operation ends a 10-year hunt led by the CIA. The affirmation that Bin Laden had been dwelling on Pakistani soil fuels accusations within the US that Pakistan is an unreliable ally within the battle on terror.
Dying of Mullah Omar
The founding father of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammed Omar, dies. His demise is saved secret for greater than two years.
In response to Afghan intelligence, Mullah Omar dies of well being issues at a hospital within the Pakistani metropolis of Karachi. Pakistan denies that he was within the nation.
Nato ends fight operations
At a ceremony in Kabul, Nato ends its fight operations in Afghanistan. With the surge now over, the US withdraws 1000’s of troops. Most of those that stay give attention to coaching and supporting the Afghan safety forces.
The Taliban launch a sequence of suicide assaults, automobile bombings and different assaults. The parliament constructing in Kabul, and town of Kunduz are attacked. Islamic State militants start operations in Afghanistan.
Dying toll announcement
Afghan President Ashraf Ghani says greater than 45,000 members of his nation’s safety forces have been killed since he grew to become chief in 2014. The determine is much larger than beforehand thought.
US indicators cope with Taliban
The US and the Taliban signal an “settlement for bringing peace” to Afghanistan, in Doha, Qatar. The US and Nato allies conform to withdraw all troops inside 14 months if the militants uphold the deal.
Date for ultimate withdrawal
US forces are scheduled to withdraw from Afghanistan by 11 September 2021, precisely 20 years since 9/11. There are sturdy indications that the withdrawal could also be full earlier than the official deadline.